The ancient city of Aphrodisias,
once the capital of the province of Lydia, is located near the village of Geyre
in the district of Karacasu 38 km south of Nazilli.In ancient times, the attractive
marble buildings of Aphrodisias no doubt shone out, as they do now, from amidst
the rich vegetation of the Dandalaz valley with its almond, pomegranate and poplar
The wealth and cultural
and political importance of the city is clearly attested by the size and magnificence
of the buildings of which it is composed.The name Aphrodisias is derived from
Aphrodite, the goddess of nature, beauty, love and plenty, and was one of the
most famous cult centres of the goddess. But this was not the original name of
the city. According to the historian Stephanus it was founded by the Lelegians
and was first known as Lelegonopolis.The name of the city was later changed to
Megalopolis, and later again to Ninoe after Ninos, the King of Assyria.
The history of the city
can be traced back to the early bronze age and there is even clear evidence of
a chalcolithic culture prior to the 3rd millennium B.C. The use of the name Aphrodisias
began after the 3rd century B.C., in the Hellenistic period.The spread of Christianity
under the Byzantine Empire and the gradual adoption of Christianity as the state
religion resulted in a marked change in the status of the city. The cult centre
of Aphrodite declined in importance, to such an extent that the names Aphrodite
and Aphrodisias were finally erased from all the inscriptions. Efforts were made
to change the name of the city to Stavrapolis, the City of the Cross, but the
local inhabitants preferred to use Caria, the name of the province.
Eyre, the name of the modern
village occupying the same site, is probably a corruption of the ancient Caria,
which occurred after the Turkish occupation of the area. It seems very likely
that in Turkish, Caria was first pronounced Kayra, and that the "k"
then changed to "g" and the "a" to "e'. Like several
other Roman and Byzantine cities, Aphrodisias was very largely self sufficient.
Aphrodisias was one of the foremost cities of the age, surrounded by fertile fields
producing every type of foodstuff. It also possessed a flourishing wool and cotton
industry, highly developed commercial, political, religious and cultural institutions
,very fine tradition of arts and crafts, world-famous schools of philosophy and
sculpture and a large and energetic body of citizens. The decline of the city
was hastened by an unfortunate incident that took place in the 7th century.
The reign of the Emperor
Heraclius (610-641 ) was marked by Arab raids and incursions from the East, religious
disputes, political and economic pressures and a number of epidemics causing great
loss of life, but the final stroke was dealt by a devastating earthquake. The
damage caused to the buildings by this earthquake is still plainly visible. Some
of the most imposing buildings were destroyed and remained unrepaired.
Very little is known of
the history of the city after the 7th century, sources of information being confined
to a few religious documents and lists of the names of the bishops. Archaeological
finds, however, would appear to point to a short lived revival in the 11th century.
The incursion of the Seljuk
Turks from Anatolia between the 11 Th. and 13th century. meant the end of the
settlements that had survived the great earthquakes. After the 13th century the
whole province became subject to the Aydin and Mentese Emirates. In the 15th and
16th centuries the fertile soil of the area attracted new settlement and the site
of the ancient city of Aphrodisias was occupied by the village of Geyre.
The Ruins, the City Defense
Walls and City Plan The first thing you see on approaching Aphrodisias from the
direction of Karacasu will be the city walls with the Ionic columns of the temple
of Aphrodite in the background. The ancient city is locate on a level piece of
ground inclining slightly towards the south-west.
The construction of the
walls is thought to have been begun during the Gothic invasion in 260, but the
walls to he seen today date from the 4th century or later. No trace has been found
of any defense system of an older date, but there may well have been a wall around
the acropolis in the area between the agora and the theatre.
After the destruction of
the walls by earthquake in the 7th century a fortress or observation tower was
built here on the highest point in the city. This was one of the first two areas
of settlement. Of the two excavation zones yielding prehistoric remains one is
located on this hill, on which a fortress or observation tower was built in the
7th century, and the other of the site occupied by the temple of Aphrodite.
The ancient acropolis was
located on a hill 24 m high affording a view of the whole city. The remains found
here indicate the existence of a settlement in prehistoric times with seven separate
layers identified as belonging to the bronze and iron ages. Traces have been found
here of mudbrick walls on stone foundations and architectural structures reminiscent
of megaron type houses.
Here too were found fairly
large jars known as pithoi used for the storage of wheat and other provisions
as well as a considerable amount of pottery fragments. The finds also include
a number of stone implements, stone statuettes, figures with the faces of owls
and fat female idols as well as various weight-measuring instruments. The excavation
area known as Pekmez Höyük to the east of the acropolis yielded pottery of the
late neolithic, late chalcolithic and early bronze ages, together with two Kilia
figurines.In the Late Hellenistic period the city developed more particularly
in the area surrounding the agora. There is no question, however, of any genuine
town planning. Neither the Temple of Aphrodite nor the Sebastion conforms to any
regular city plan.
The Temple of Aphrodite
Located in the northern section, in ancient times the Temple of Aphrodite
formed the centre and nucleus of the city. All that remains of the ancient temple
consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and
the foundations of the cella section. Although the cult centre dates back to earlier
times the temple whose remains we see today was begun in the 1st century B.C.
and is thought to have been completed during the reign of Augustus. The temenos
(temple precinct) was completed in the 2nd century during the reign of Hadrian.
The building would appear to have been what is known as an octastyle temple with
thirteen columns on each side and eight columns at front and rear. On some of
the columns are inscribed the names of the donors who presented them to the temple.
The discovery of several
mosaic fragments belonging to the Hellenistic period indicate the existence of
an older temple on the same site, but with the conversion of the temple to a church
in the 5th century all traces of the older building were erased. At the same time,
the walls of the cella containing the cult statues were removed and the building
enlarged by moving the side columns outwards. Walls were added at the front and
rear of the building to form an apse and nave. An apse and an atrium were added
on the east and west. No cult statue was found in the cella but in 1962 a statue
was found immediately outside it bearing all the characteristics of a cult statue.
This statue, which is now exhibited in the museum, displays a stiff, hieratic
stance closely resembling the Artemis of Ephesus. The goddess is wearing a long
garment. One of the arms is stretched forward. The reliefs carved on the bands
of the garment are very interesting. The sun god and moon goddess, the Three Graces
with Aphrodite in the middle, Aphrodite and three Cupids seated on a goat with
the tail of a fish are all symbols which frequently appear on various copies of
the cult statue.
One of the most attractive features of Aphrodisias is the ornamental gate
constructed in the middle of the 2nd century. The name Tetrapylon refers to its
being composed of four groups of four columns. The entrance lies to the east.
The front row of Corinthian columns with spiral fluting look out on to a street
with north-south alignment. The second and third columns of this fourfold structure
are surmounted by a semicircular lintel with relief figures of Nike and Erotes
amid acanthus leaves. The process of repairing and re-erecting the Tetrapylon
columns was completed in 1990.
Odeon and Bishop's Palace
The odeon, a building which differed from the theatre in being used mainly
as a concert hall and lecture room, is in a fairly good state of preservation.Located
immediately to the south of the temple, it was constructed in the 2nd century
A.D. There were originally a larger number of tiers in the upper part of the buildings
but these are thought to have been destroyed in an earthquake.The orchestra and
stage building of the odeon were adorned with mosaics an statues now preserved
in the museum and the auditorium was covered with a wooden roof. A fairly large
architectural complex is to be found to the west of the odeon. Constructed in
the Late Roman period, part of this building is thought to have later been used
in the Byzantine period as the residence of a governor or bishop. It would thus
appear that the temple and its environs preserved its status as a religious and
administrative centre into Christian times.
The agora, located between the temple and the acropolis was planned in the
1 St. century B.C. for use as a market and popular meeting place. It is composed
of two Ionic porticoes over 200 m long and running from east to west. The southern
portico, which is known as the portico of Tiberius, was systematically examined
in the course of the older excavations, while the 1937 excavations carried out
by the Italian team yielded extremely valuable friezes together with inscriptions
written in praise of the Emperor Tiberius.Recent excavations conducted in the
northern section, in the western section near the baths of Hadrian and the gate
of the agora in the south-east yielded a large number of very fine specimens of
the skill of the Aphrodisian sculptors and stone-carvers. Most of the reliefs
consist of sacred or individual portraits surrounded by wreaths or garlands, masks
and mythological scenes.The monumental gate of the agora is located at the eastern
end of the Portico of Tiberius. This ornamental entrance was erected in the middle
of the 2nd century but in order to prevent the flooding that followed the 4th
century earthquake it was converted into a nymphaeum and connected to a water
supply system to be used in controlling the water flow.
This is thought to have
been constructed in the 5th century and to have suffered severe damage in the
7th century earthquake. Among the scenes represented on the reliefs in the niches
on the Agora gate are to be seen the struggle between the Centaurs and the Lapiths
(Centauromachy), between the Gods and the Giants (Gigantomachy) and between the
Amazons and the Greeks (Amazonomachy).
Baths of Hadrian
The baths constructed in the 2nd century during the reign of the Emperor
Hadrian lie to the west of the Portico of Tiberius. This complex consists of a
large central hall, probably the caldarium or hot room, surrounded. by four large
rooms, the tepidarium, siidatorium, apoditerium and frigidarium (warm room, sweating
room, dressing room and cold room respectively).
It is a most imposing building
with all the requisite facilities, such as labyrinthine underground service corridors,
water channels and furnaces.
In the excavations conducted
here in 1904 the French archaeologist Paul Gaudin unearthed a large number of
artistic works now preserved in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.
Begun in 1966, the excavations in the theatre area yielded a great deal of
extremely valuable information regarding both the prehistoric and historic periods
in Aphrodisias as well as very well preserved sections of the theatre building
and a large number of statues and reliefs of the highest quality.
The theatre building rests
against the eastern slope of the acropolis. Construction was completed in 27 B.C.
but in the 2nd century A.D. certain structural changes were made to make the theatre
suitable for gladiatorial combats. The stage building was enlarged and connected
to the cavea, a room for the wild animals was opened in the rear and some corridors
were added. Following the collapse of the upper sections of the cavea in the 7th
century earthquake and the partial filling up of the auditorium the Byzantine
inhabitants covered the orchestra and stage buildings with earth and built houses
over it, at the same time surrounding the acropolis with a wall.The most interesting
and remarkable of the finds discovered in the excavations was the Zoilos relief.
Zoilos was a manumitted slave of Octavian who played an influential role in fostering
good relations between Aphrodisias and Rome and who succeeded in having the city
exempted from tax. The proscenion and logeion sections of the theatre were presented
by Zoilos as a gift to Aphrodite and the citizens of Aphrodisias.
The Sebastion is a most remarkable discovery, not only as regards the excavations
in Aphrodisias but in the whole context of classical archaeological excavation.
When the building was first unearthed in 1979 it appeared to have no relation
to any other building but, as excavations were carried down to deeper levels,
it became apparent that this consisted of a temple dedicated to the cult of the
Emperor Augustus (Sebastos is the Greek equivalent of the Latin Augustus) and
its surrounding complex.
Of the temple only the
foundations now remain, together with a few column bases, Corinthian style capitals
and architrave blocks. In addition to the damage inflicted by the earthquakes
in the 4th and 7th centuries, the remains of the temple also suffered from the
use of the area for settlement in the Byzantine and Turkish periods.
The temple, which was located
at the eastern end of the Sebastion, consisted of two porticoes 80 m in length
composed of half columns and a ceremonial way 14 m wide. At the western end there
was a gate or propylon opening on to the street. Excavations both inside and outside
the porticoes yielded a quite extraordinary quantity of reliefs and decorative
panels. The most remarkable of these included depictions of the birth of Eros,
the Three Graces, Apollo in Delphi, Meleager, Achilles and Penthesilea, Nyssa
and the child Dionysus. There are also reliefs of some members of the imperial
family and mythological figures. Those identified include Augustus, Germanicus,
Lucius, Gaius Caesar, Claudius and Agrippa, together with Prometheus and Aeneas
fleeing from Troy. There is also a particularly interesting group of reliefs symbolizing
Claudius's conquest of Britain and Nero's conquest of Armenia.
There are also a number
of fragments depicting the peoples of the various countries with which Augustus
had waged war or formed other types of relationships but these have suffered severe
It would appear from the
epigraphic evidence that the Sebastion porticoes were built during the reigns
of Claudius and Nero and were the gifts of two separate families.
The Aphrodisias stadium is the best preserved of all the ancient stadiums
in the Mediterranean region. Located in the northern section of the city it is
262 m in length and 59 m wide with a seating capacity of 30,000. The ends of the
are slightly convex, giving
the whole a form rather suggesting an ellipse. In this way, the spectators seated
in this part of the stadium would not block each other's view and would be able
to see the whole of the arena. The stadium was specially designed for athletic
contests, but after the theatre was damaged in the 7th century earthquake the
eastern end of the arena began to be used for games, circuses and wild beast shows.
During the Roman period the stadium was the scene of a large number of athletic
competitions and festivals.
These competitions in the
province of Asia Minor were modeled on the Olympic and Pythian games in Greece,
and had the same name and organization as the Greek equivalent.
These shows were held with
the permission of Rome and the granting of such permission was regarded as a signal
honour. The games held in Aphrodisias were Pythian, not Olympic. These were complemented
by the Gordineia festivals held in honour of the Emperor and with his special
The Museum of Aphrodisias
The Museum of Aphrodisias is one of the most outstanding museums of western
Anatolia. The monuments of unsurpassed value which have been found at the excavations
are displayed here.
Observing these finds and
imagining them in their former places suffice to grasp the splendor of these antique
monuments which once used to be. Especially the works of the sculpture school
of antique Aphrodisias show the level of development of this art.